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  • BIRA-IASB monitoring network of UV ground stations
    risks threatening populations due to a potential increase of UV rays in surface The group Solar Radiation of the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy BIRA IASB decided to establish a network of measuring ground stations allowing quasi real time tracking monitoring of UV A UV B and visible range Goal is to verify the potential for increased UV B on the ground better understand the mechanisms of penetration through the atmosphere and to finally establish a climatology both reliable and continuous The first station of this network was inaugurated in March 1993 on top of the building of BIRA IASB Uccle From the outset this network aimed to achieve Spectral measurements information rich but with a low temporal resolution one measurement per quarter hour only Integrated measures UV A UV B and total solar radiation with a high temporal resolution up to one measurement per second Quasi spectral measurements offering a good compromise between spectral resolution in terms of wavelength 6 10 and 14 bands throughout the UV Visible and temporal resolution approximately one measurement per minute Other measurements such as the total column of ozone or SO2 and the main meteorological parameters temperature air pressure moisture wind speed

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/topics/naturalhazards/uv-network.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Air quality | BIRA-IASB
    like the Ruhr Basin in Germany the Benelux the Po river valley in Italy stand out as severely polluted areas and are consequently clearly identifiable on air pollution maps as seen for example in the mean global distribution of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the troposphere see Figure 1 Fig 1 NO2 measurements in the troposphere SCIAMACHY 2004 Credits KNMI BIRA IASB ESA However next to emissions due to industrial activities

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/topics/globalchange/airquality-whathappens.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Air quality - Species | BIRA-IASB
    Mission scenarios Instrument design and technology Mission operations Data management Air quality A few atmospheric species related to air quality Nitrogen dioxide NO2 already notorious as one of the main causes of photochemical smog and acid rain is also responsible for respiratory tract irritation problems it can enhance asthma chronic bronchitis etc and other health ailments This gaseous compound is mainly produced by combustion processes in industrial plants and car engines Next to nitrogen dioxide sulphur dioxide also contaminates the lower atmosphere Although volcanic eruptions sporadically release very large amounts of this gas the largest source of sulphur compounds is the combustion of fossil fuels coal and oil with high sulphur content as well as several industrial processes e g copper smelting Once in the atmosphere this gas is oxidized into sulphuric acid which rapidly combines with water to form fine droplets i e sulfate aerosols Air quality on the global scale seems to be deteriorating Most citizens living in modern societies are aware of hazards associated with polluted living conditions That s probably what led industrialized countries to change their policies and to more efficiently manage their emissions by this way maintaining a sustainable air quality Yet on the

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/topics/globalchange/airquality-species.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Air quality Beijing Olympic Stadium China | BIRA-IASB
    surface Space weather Space missions Mission scenarios Instrument design and technology Mission operations Data management Air quality Examples of BIRA IASB implications in air quality studies Beijing Olympic stadium in China In China for instance nitrogen dioxide pollution increases at an annual average rate of ten percent a figure that reflects China s formidable economic growth in the last decade The MAXDOAS instrument in Beijing China In the framework of the DRAGON Programme of the European Space Agency BIRA IASB developed an instrument in collaboration with the Chinese Institute of Atmospheric Physics IAP to monitor the air quality in the Beijing city and to support the validation of satellite observations of the tropospheric pollutants like NO2 SO2 ozone fine particles The instrument that was installed on the roof of IAP a few hundred meters from the Beijing Olympic stadium is able to monitor the vertical distribution of a number of key atmospheric pollutants based on the technique of multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy MAXDOAS The observations will be exploited in the context of several ongoing National and European projects like AGACC AMFIC and GEOMON Further air pollution monitoring and algorithmic developments are part of BIRA IASB s tasks within

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/topics/globalchange/airquality-china.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Air quality | BIRA-IASB
    project within the European Space Agency s Global Monitoring for Environment and Security GMES Service Element GSE programme The main objective of PROMOTE is to deliver sustainable and reliable operational services to support informed decisions on atmospheric policy issues forecasting monitoring and reporting duties of European environmental agencies For instance concrete records of air pollutants and daily updates of pollution situations are delivered to the public thus helping it to

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/topics/globalchange/airquality-bira-iasb.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Air quality Studies | BIRA-IASB
    tropospheric chemical models i e mathematical numerical representations of the troposphere composition have been created to determine the influence of the natural and anthropogenic emissions i e produced by human activities of key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides NOx and hydrocarbons These compounds are the main cause of photochemical smog however their emissions are still poorly known Therefore we used our global model of tropospheric chemistry in combination with satellite

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/topics/globalchange/airquality-model.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • SOLAR Mission Centre | BIRA-IASB
    is a centre for operational support to scientists which is given responsibility by ESA for a payload on board the International Space Station ISS Its functions are concentrated on the systems aspects of the payloads and concern all phases of operations i e pre mission in flight and post mission activities Image credits ESA NASA Three instruments make up the solar observatory SOLAR payload These three complementary instruments SOVIM SOLSPEC

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/en/services/solar.htm (2016-04-27)
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  • Zonnewind | BIRA-IASB
    graden overschrijdt Bijgevolg krijgen de plasmadeeltjes een aanzienlijke bewegingssnelheid een beetje zoals de moleculen in een kokende vloeistof hoge snelheden op microscopische schaal verwerven Op een zekere hoogte boven het oppervlak van de Zon is de bewegingssnelheid van de elektronen zo hoog verschillende duizenden km s dat ze zich losmaken van de zwaartekrachtsgreep van de Zon en positief geladen ionen met zich meevoeren De zonnewind verspreidt zich dan in de interplanetaire ruimte Het magneetveld van onze planeet beschermt ons bijna volledig tegen de aanstromende zonnewind door die af te leiden Maar er bestaan zwakke zones in dit natuurlijke beschermingsschild In de buurt van de polen zorgen de krachtlijnen van het magnetisch veld voor trechters waar deze deeltjes kunnen binnendringen De vierde toestand van materie Op Aarde komt materie voornamelijk voor in drie toestanden vast vloeibaar of gasvormig Maar in de ruimte heerst een vierde toestand de toestand van de plasma s Een plasma is een elektrisch geladen geïoniseerd gas een mengsel van elektronen met negatieve elektrische lading en positief geladen ionen In de hele ruimte bestaat 99 procent van de aanwezige materie uit plasma Plasma is zeer gevoelig voor elektrische en magnetische velden In de hoge atmosfeer dus vanaf 70

    Original URL path: http://www.bira-iasb.be/nl/thema/zonnestelsel/zonnewindwatishet.htm (2016-04-27)
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